History 201C: Reading and Writing in Paris, 500-1500
SPRING QUARTER 2012
Monday 1:00-3:50 Research Library, Special Collections, Smith Room. (Medieval manuscripts will be examined in class, so the class will meet in Special Collections.)
Instructors are Richard and Mary Rouse.
For Graduate Students and qualified Juniors and Seniors.
Recommended Preparation: History of Medieval Europe, or Medieval French Literature, or Medieval Art and Architecture; reading knowledge of French or Latin or both.
Enrollment is by permission of the instructor. Please contact Richard Rouse at firstname.lastname@example.org and arrange to pick up a PTE form. The course is cross-listed, but enrollment should be through the History site. NB: We will be at the Medieval Academy meetings in St. Louis, 22-27 March and unreachable.
Grade will be based on the term paper and class participation.
I. (Monday 2 April) ROMAN AND PATRISTIC PARIS.
A. Roman Paris, Roman Christianity after AD 325. Roman readers and writers; creation of circumstances for reading and writing.
- Dictionary of the Middle Ages v. 9, pp. 401-407, Paris.
- Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, pp.698-707, Paris.
- Atlas de Paris au Moyen Age, pp. 14-18. Locate each of the major Roman ruins.
B. Lutetia becomes Paris. Julian the Apostate on Paris. Hagiography, documented and potential, in the wake of memorable Parisian saints such as Denis (d. ca. 250) and Geneviève (d. ca. 500), and venerated bishops such as Marcel (d. ca. 436), Germain (d. 576), and Landry (d. ca. 661). Morphing of the senatorial class into the episcopacy: Gregory of Tours; Venantius Fortunatus. By the era of the Merovingians (6th -7th centuries) there were more than 30 churches in Paris.
- Gregory of Tours History of the Franks trans. Lewis Thorpe; Chilperic building amphitheaters in Paris AD 570s, bk. V chap 17, p. 275; raining blood in Paris AD 582, bk. VI chap. 14, p. 346; Great Flood of Paris AD 583, bk. VI chap. 25, p. 353; Great Fire of Paris AD 585, bk. VIII chap. 33, pp. 465-467; an imposter when Gregory preached at the church of Julien le Pauvre in Paris AD 587, bk. IX chap. 6, pp. 485-486.
- Venantius Fortunatus, poems, ed. and trans. Marc Reydellet: bk 2 no. 9, “To the clergy of Paris”; bk 2 no. 10, “On the church of Paris” [i.e. the cathedral]
II. (Monday 9 April) BASILICAS, ABBEYS, AND RELICS: LITERACY IN MEROVINGIAN PARIS.
A. Christianity. The foundation of the principal churches and abbeys of medieval Paris;
Merovingian royalty and Paris;
Use of Papyrus.
- Atlas de Paris…pp. 19-20. Locate each of the institutions mentioned above.
- Ian Wood, “Administration, law and culture in Merovingian Gaul,” in R. McKitterick, - The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe (1990), pp.63-81
B. Bischoff, Latin palaeography, pp. 7-8.
B. Literate nobles and kings, foundations and liturgical works
Poetry / mass / theology / revision of the alphabet by Chilperic (d. AD 584), with implication of wide-spread boys’ schools (Gregory bk 5 chap 44, pp. 310-312)
Ermenthrude’s will AD 590-630
Ouen, Life of St. Eloi ca. 675 and implications for St. Ouen’s own reading.
Source(s) of books?
- English translation of Ermenthrude’s will (handout)
- Dag Norberg, La poésie latine du haut moyen âge, chap. 2 “La poésie du roi
- “Saint Eloi and his Books,” R.H. and M.A. Rouse in Manuscripta 55 (2011), pages to be supplied.
- Jo Ann McNamara, online translation of Audoen’s Life of Eloi:
III. (Monday 16 April) ORDER AND UNIFORMITY THROUGH WRITING in CAROLINGIAN GAUL
A. Order out of Chaos by Uniformity. Writing and Libraries in 8th and 9th century Paris.
Codification of Law Codes.
Efforts to Standardize Texts.
Minuscule and Majuscule Script.
R. McKitterick, The Carolingians and the Written Word (1989).
- _____. “ Text and Image in the Carolingian World,” in her The Uses of Literacy. pp. 297-319.
- J. Nelson, “Literacy in Carolingian Government,” in The Uses of Literacy. pp. 258-296.
- Bischoff, Latin Palaeography. (1990) pp. 100-109, 112-118, 202-212.
B. Importance of St-Denis to the Carolingians – charters in Chartae, significance of their numbers and survival.
Abbo of St-Germain on the siege of Paris 890.
- Translations of royal charters for the benefit of St-Denis (handout)
- Translation of Pepin’s granting of a fair for St-Denis (handout)
- Abbo of St-Germain on the siege of Paris 890 (handout)
IV. (Monday 23 April) THE APPEARANCE AND GROWTH OF SCHOOLS IN PARIS.
A. Schools and Paris in the late Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
- Bischoff, Latin Palaeography 118—129.
- Manuscripts and their Makers, part of chapter 1 (vol. 1 pp. 11-33)
B. The Codification of the Text Books: Gloss to the Bible, Gratian’s Decretum, Peter Lombard’s Sentences.
- Abelard, History of My Misfortunes (handout)
- John of Salisbury, Metalogicon (handout)
- C. de Hamel, Glossed Books of the Bible…(1984) pp. 1-28, 55-86.
V. (Monday 30 April) THE GROWTH OF RELIGIOUS DIVERGENCE AND RESPONSES TO IT.
A. Cities, Literacy and Divergence.
Mendicant Orders Franciscan and Dominican
Durand of Huesca
- M.A and R.H. Rouse, “The Schools and the Waldensians: A New Work by Durand of Huesca,” in Christendom and its Discontents. ed. S. Waugh and P. Diehl (1995) pp. 86-111.
B. Books for the University, book-trade that serves the University. Creation of the Paris Bible, creation of research tools.
- Laura Light, “The New Thirteenth Century Bible and the Challenge of Heresy,” Viator 18 (1987) 275-288.
- M.A. and R.H. Rouse, “Statim invenire. Schools, Preachers and New Attitudes to the Page ” in Authentic Witnesses: Approaches to Medieval Texts and Manuscripts (1991) pp. 191-219.
M.A. & R.H. Rouse, Manuscripts and their Makers chapter 3 (vol. 1 pp. 72-97)
VI. (Monday 7 May) THE FOUNDATION AND GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY AND THE EARLY COLLEGES IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.
A. Emergence of Faculties and Nations, Foundation of Colleges, Books and libraries in Paris.
- M.A. and R.H. Rouse, “The Early Library of the Sorbonne,” Authentic Witnesses (1991) pp. 341-408.
M.A. and RH.Rouse, “ The Book Trade at the University … ca.1250-ca. 1350” in Authentic Witnesses pp. 259-338.
B. Growth of literacy in the city, importance of the Mendicant orders. Establishment of a thriving commercial book trade. Translations of Jean de Meun at the turn of the century.
M.A, & R.H. Rouse “Early Manuscripts of Jean de Meun’s Translation of Vegetius.” In The Medieval Book. Glosses from Friends and Colleagues of Christopher de Hamel (2010) pp. 59-74.
VII. (Monday 14 May). VERNACULAR LITERATURE MAINSTAY OF THE COMMERCIAL BOOK TRADE IN 14TH CENTURY PARIS.
A. Vernacular literature, Paper and Cursive Script. Grandes Chroniques de France.
- M.A. and R.H. Rouse, “The Goldsmith and the Peacocks: Jean de le Mote in the Household of Simon de Lille, 1340,” Viator (1997) 281-303.
- B. Bischoff, Palaeography pp. 136-145, 224-234.
- Anne D. Hedeman, The Royal Image (1991): introduction, and skim pts. I-III.
B. Explosion of vernacular literature at Paris in the course of the 14th century – romances, devotional works, scholarly works, Ménagier de Paris, translations for Charles V by Machaut (d. 1377) and Deschamps (d. 1406).
- Parts of the Ménagier – Eileen Power trans. (Goodman of Paris: handout); or K. Ueltschi’s 1994 modern French translation, Le Mesnagier de Paris (paperback, Lettres gothiques series)
- Simone Roux (trans. McNamara), Paris in the Middle Ages (2009); a good survey of the later centuries, XIII-XV
VIII. ( Monday 21 May) RECURRENT PLAGUE AND WARFARE
A. Changes in the Market for Books.
- M.A. and R. H. Rouse, “Jean Marlais and Bonne his Wife: Last Wills from the Medieval Paris Booktrade,” in Du copiste au collectionneur: Melanges d’histoire des textes et des bibliotheques en l’honneur d’Andre Vernet, ed. J.F. Genest and D. Nebbiai-Dalla Guarda, Bibliologia 18 (Paris 1999) 319-337.
- M.A., R.H. Rouse and G.Croenen, “Pierre de Liffol and the Manuscripts of Froissart’s Chronicles,” Viator 33 (2002) 261-293.
B. Paris at war in the 15th century: Bourgeois de Paris; treason trials of book people; death of Jean de Berry; Christine de Pizan and Joan of Arc, the Duke of Bedford as a patron.
- Manuscripts and their Makers, part of chapter 11 pt. iv (vol. 1 pp. 297-300)
- Colette Beaune, ed., Bourgeois de Paris (1990), intro. and any parts that interest you (optional)
Jenny Stratford, ed., The Bedford Inventories (1993), Introduction
M.A. and R.H. Rouse, ”Prudence, Mother of Virtues: The Chapelet des vertus and Christine de Pizan,” Viator 39 (2008) 185-228.
IX. (Monday 4 June) PARIS IN THE AGE OF PRINT
A. Background to and Prerequisites for Print. Changes brought about by Print.
- S. Hindman, “The Career of Guy Marchant (1483-1504): High Culture and Low Culture in Paris,” in Printing and the Written Word The Social History of Books, ca. 1450-1520 , ed. S. Hindman (1991) pp. 68-100.
- C. Brown, “Text, Image, and Authorial Self Consciousness in Late Medieval Paris,” in Hindman, Printing and the Written Word. Pp. 103-142.
B. Peter Schoeffer working as a scribe while studying at the University of Paris 1449-50 etc. before working in Mainz first for Gutenberg and then for Fust (whose dau. he married). Paris booksellers selling German printed quires; Andry le Musnier, Jean Guymier, etc. Parisian printers producing books in French: Pasquier Bonhomme (by 1477), Antoine Vérard printing a work of Christine de Pizan by 1488, Pierre Levet printing a sizable collection of Villon’s works in 1489 (was Villon still alive? one doesn’t know).
- Rouse and Rouse, Manuscripts and their Makers chapter 12 (vol. 1 pp. 303-327).
M. B. Winn, Anthoine Vérard , Parisian Publisher, 1485-1512. (1997), esp. chap. 1 pp. 15-38.
11-15 June EXAM WEEK: Papers due by June 15.
SUGGESTED PAPER TOPICS
The history of any of the libraries in medieval Paris. One of the oldest and hence
the most interesting is that of Saint-Germain-des-Prés; more than one person could work on this one.
The Pope called Paris the “parens scientiarum “ in the bull granting the corporation of masters a charter. What is the history of this phrase? does it appear in gthe writings of the Church Fathers? or in Migne’s Patrologia latina?
There are numerous vernacular works, pieces of literature, written by authors in Paris: examine the creation and transmission and manuscripts of almost any one of these for what it might tell you about how a literary work was put into circulation at the time and place.
Authorial references in prologues to how their works were to be read might be interesting to gather up and examine.
Students are free to devise a topic of their own, provided it is approved by the instructors.
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